Francisca Ulloa, Day 11 Ready (2007)
“Caravaggio Experience at Palazzo delle Esposizioni in Rome is a multi-sensory video installation on the work of Italian painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610).
Through the use of a sophisticated multi-projection system, combined with original music composed by Stefano Saletti and fragrances by Florence’s historic Santa Maria Novella perfumery, the visitor has a unique experience at every sensory level and is fully immersed in Caravaggio’s world of the 16th century.”
A digital image is composed of groups of three pixels with colors of red, green and blue (RGB), also called channels in digital imaging. Each channel also contains a luminance value to determine how light or dark the color is. To get a grayscale image, the color information from each channel is removed, leaving only the luminance values, and that is why the image becomes a pattern of light and dark areas devoid of color, essentially a black and white image. Most digital imaging software applications, even the most basic ones, are able to convert an image to grayscale. This is also very important when printing, since it only consumes black ink, as opposed to printing in color, which consumes all three print colors (cyan, magenta and yellow) as well as black.”
Chiaroscuro: “(from the Italian for “light-dark”; or the French “clair-obscur”) describes the prominent contrast of light and shade in a painting, drawing or print, and the skill demonstrated by the artist in the management of shadows to create the illusion of three-dimensional forms.
The point is, solidity of form is only detectable in the presence of light. (For instance, it is only as dawn approaches that objects or figures – hitherto detectable only as slightly darker blobs than their surroundings – acquire volume and a three-dimensional appearance.) And if light emanates from a single source, it illuminates objects according to a specific set of rules. Chiaroscuro describes how the painter depicts the 3-D illumination of objects thus creating the illusion of solid forms.
Tenebrism: (from the Italian word “tenebroso” meaning “murky”) are concerned with the treatment of light and shadow in a two-dimensional painting or drawing. And at first glance a tenebrist painting might look very similar to one containing strong chiaroscuro effects.
Difference between chiaroscuro and tenebrism: Both chiaroscuro and the Mannerist painterly style known as tenebrism (from the Italian word “tenebroso” meaning “murky”) are concerned with the treatment of light and shadow in a two-dimensional painting or drawing. And at first glance a tenebrist painting might look very similar to one containing strong chiaroscuro effects.
However, there is a clear theoretical difference between the two terms. As described above, chiaroscuro is a painterly shading technique used specifically to give 2-D objects a sense of volume: that is, to make them look like three-dimensional solids. Whereas tenebrism is a dark-light compositional technique by which some areas of the painting are kept dark (that is, totally black), allowing one or two areas to be strongly illuminated by comparison.”